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Nodules in Bothnian Bay

The polymetallic manganese nodules are rock-like, concretions formed by precipitation on the seabed and are found throughout the Baltic Sea. It is estimated that Bothnian Bay in total contain approximately 20 million tons of manganese nodules.

The nodules can be refined into:

  • Manganese used in batteries

  • Iron for high quality steel products

  • Silicon used in solar cells and semiconductors 

  • Other subjects used for different electronical and medical components

Polymetallic manganese nodules
Substances that can be extracted from the manganese nodules


On theBothnia Bayseafloor lies small potato-sized lumps – nodules – that contain minerals. In theBaltic Sealies sediments.


Via an air-lift technique, developed by Scandinavian Ocean Minerals, the seafloor is gently harvested for nodules or bottom sediment.


On board the ship, nodules are filtered or, if sediment centrifuged


Water and material that is not used is returned directly to the seafloor, which becomes oxygenated in the process.


Nodules and sediment are transported to land where nodules are refined into, among other things, manganese, iron, silicon (used for batteries, solar cells and semiconductors) while sediment becomes biogas, hydrogen gas or green coal (used for fossil-free steel) .

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